—Biblical Data: A dramatic poem in forty-two chapters, the characters in which are Job, his wife (mentioned only once, ii. He curses the day he was bron; wishes he had died immediately after birth; thinks death preferable to a life of misfortune. He exhorts Job to turn to God in sincerity, who will surely restore him to well-being. He relates his sufferings, and reproaches God, who takes delight in torturing him. He maintains that God knows that he is not wicked, and yet tortures him. xi.: Zophar, in reply, accuses Job of wickedness, for which he is being punished, and exhorts him to repent. xii-xiv.: Job declares that he is as wise as his friends and that he needs not their counsel. He again exhorts Job to repentance, telling him that therein he will prosper at last. xxiii.-xxiv.: Job complains that, not knowing the abode of God, he can not bring his case directly before Him.
9), his three friends—Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar—Elihu, and God (see Drama, Hebrew). i.-ii.: Prologue, describing Job's prosperity, its disappearance,and the calamities sent upon him at the suggestion of Satan. God is ruler, and therefore he complains directly to Him of the prosperity of the wicked and of the suffering of the righteous. xviii.: Bildad confirms his friends' assertion that the wicked, in spite of present prosperity, will come to a bad end. xix.: Job accuses his friends of being unjust toward him, laments that now he has none to whom he may go for comfort: God persecutes him, his friends and acquaintances have abandoned him, even his wife turns against him. Then, changing his theme, he describes the perverseness of the wicked and marvels that God, who sees everything, does not check them. xxv.: Bildad rejoins that man has no right to complain, as he can not be perfect. xxvi.-xxxi.: Job, after declaring to Bildad that he knows well that God is omnipotent and omniscient, cites a parable, maintaining that he is upright and a stranger to wickedness. he exalts wisdom, and contrasts, in the two following chapters, his present condition with his former prosperity. Many catastrophes had been recently witnessed falling upon great nations (xii. 12 et seq.) all point to a comparatively late time.
The faith of Job has inspired believers for millennia. These questions have puzzled scholars as much as God's actions challenged Job.
Despite horrible hardships and losses, Job showed a deep understanding of and trust in God — and eventually a humility that stands for us to follow. The land of Uz where Job lived is identified as Edom in Lamentations .
The sublime grandeur of the final theophany, the simple directness of the narrative portions, and the imaginative coloring of the soul-problems raised in the book make it, regarded merely as literature, the most striking production of the Hebraic genius.
See Job, Biblical Data.—Critical View: The poem which is contained in Job iii. 6, exclusive of later interpolations, discusses a religious problem which could scarcely have been formulated in the early period of the Israelitic people; for it presupposes a high spiritual development and a maturity of judgment which are acquired by a people only after great trials and sore tribulations.
Further, Job and his friends are most likely Edomites or at least Transjordanian.
Also, the Hebrew wisdom author creatively situates the participants poetic sections in the past.
These two chapters describe the nature and habits of the hippopotamus ("behemoth") and the whale ("leviathan"). xlii.: Epilogue; after a short speech from Job declaring his repentance, an account of his restoration to his former state of prosperity is given. Barth, "Beiträge zur Erklärung des Buches Hiob," 1876, p. Sabeans and Chaldeans logically would have interacted more with Edom than Egypt would, on the basis of geography.The Bible provides its own internal references to certain names found in the Book of Job besides Uz, though less conclusively.The author creates the impression that while the narrative arises out Hebrew wisdom and language, the dialogue bears the marks of internationalization through the use of Aramaisms and ancient names for God.Our author, in short, provides a wisdom lesson through the experience of Edomite wise men a millennium previous to his own time much like we might teach a contemporary lesson through the use of medieval characters.